Problems of deformation and crazing analysed through the new combined optical instruments


Generally, the deformations of ceramic materials after firing may have a complex origin. If the products are made up of a single material, such deformations are mainly due to pyroplastic phenomena. In the case of multi-layer products (glazed or technical double layer tiles), two further factors must be considered. In fact, in this case, the deformations depend also on the state of tension established between the various layers during cooling and their differences in behaviour during sintering.

Tile & Ceramics